Carb Escapes Glossary
Acesulfame-K Aspartame Chicory Root Extract
Gum Acacia Erythritol Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load
Inulin Insulin Resistance Isoflavones
Lactose Net Carbs Organic
Polydextrose RDI Sucralose (Splenda®)
Type II Diabetes Trans Fat Vegetable Glycerine

Acesulfame-K
This material is the result of the combination of acetoacetic acid and potassium to form a highly stable, crystalline sweetener. The chemical structure is similar to saccharin. It also does not occur in nature. [ top ]

Aspartame
Made from a process incorporating aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol. Does not occur in nature. [ top ]

Chicory Root Extract
Derived from the chicory root this ingredient is extracted by steam extraction. [ top ]

Gum Acacia
Natural gum derived from tapped from Acacia Trees. [ top ]

Erythritol
This is a sugar alcohol derived from the natural fermentation of glucose. The glucose comes from a natural enzymatic breakdown of starch. Both glucose and erythritol occur in nature. Erythritol has been shown to have no impact on blood sugar levels when consumed. Therefore, it has a glycemic index of 1 or 2. [ top ]

Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load
The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. It compares foods gram for gram of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indexes. The blood glucose response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that breakdown slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the blood stream, have low glycemic indexes.

What is the Significance of Glycemic Index (GI)? [ top ]

  • Low GI means a smaller rise in blood glucose levels after meals
  • Low GI diets can help people lose weight
  • Low GI diets can improve the body's sensitivity to insulin
  • Low GI foods can help re-fuel carbohydrate stores after exercise
  • Low GI can improve diabetes control
  • Low GI foods keep you fuller for longer
  • Low GI can prolong physical endurance

What is Glycemic Load (GL)? [ top ]

  • Glycemic load builds on the GI to provide a measure of total glycemic response to a food or meal
  • Glycemic load = GI (%) x grams of carbohydrate per serving
  • One unit of GL ~ glycemic effect of 1 gram glucose
  • You can sum the GL of all the foods in a meal, for the whole day or even longer
  • A typical diet has ~ 100 GL units per day (range 60 - 180)

Inulin
Inulin is a natural dietary fiber that is extracted from the root of a chicory plant through hot water extraction. Inulin has been shown to have prebiotic properties – a nutrient to the “beneficial bacteria” (particularly Bifido-bacteria and lactobacillus) located in the large intestine. The bacteria growth helps maintain and produce balanced intestinal flora. Healthy intestinal flora provides many benefits including:

  • Nutritionally support digestive transit time and thus support regularity
  • Assist and strengthen the immune system
  • Help protect the intestine through the barrier effect of Bifido-bacteria
  • Assist in controlling the formation of free radicals which are linked to cancer

Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance is an underlying cause of type 2 diabetes. Ninety percent of people with type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant. Insulin resistance occurs when the body fails to respond properly to the insulin it already produces. People who are insulin resistant may have the ability to overcome the resistance by producing more insulin. However, if the body cannot produce sufficient amounts of insulin, sugar levels in the bloodstream rise and type II diabetes often occurs. [ top ]

Isoflavones
Isoflavones are one of a group of plant-based phytochemicals that are believed to be the cause of soy’s health benefits. Soy is unique in its high isoflavones content. It has been theorized that isoflavones work in a synergistic manner with soy protein. [ top ]

Lactose
The main sugar found in dairy milk that is broken down and metabolized in the body as glucose and galactose. [ top ]

Net Carbs
High glycemic carbohydrates counted towards the total carbohydrate intake for low net carb diets. Net Carbs = Total Carbs – (Fiber + Sugar Alcohols + Glycerine) [ top ]

Organic
From NOSB 1995 Definition: Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony.
For more information try the Organic Trade Association Web site www.ota.com [ top ]

Polydextrose
This ingredient is made using dextrose, sorbitol and citric acid by vacuum thermal polymerization. Polydextrose does not occur in nature. [ top ]

RDI
Recommended Daily Intake. The amount of a given nutritional component that the FDA feels is necessary for good health. Usually expressed as a percentage. [ top ]

Sucralose (Splenda®)
Made by replacing three hydroxyl groups with chlorine. The resulting molecule is not recognized as sugar by the body and as such, is not digested. Some refer to Sucralose as Chlorinated Sugar. Sucralose does not occur in nature. [ top ]

Type II Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use sugar. Sugar is the basic fuel for the cells in the body, and insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems:

  • Right away, your cells may be starved for energy.
  • Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart.

To learn more about Diabetes we recommend you visits the American Diabetes Association website: www.diabetes.org/home.jsp [ top ]

Trans Fat
Trans fat is the result of adding hydrogen to a vegetable oil (hydrogenation) to improve its shelf life, flavor and functional properties. Tans fats have been linked to heart disease. The FDA has determined that trans fat should be consumed in minimum quantities. [ top ]

Vegetable Glycerine
Produced from naturally occurring tri-glycerides derived from non-GMO coconut, palm kernel and palm oils. Glycerine occurs naturally throughout nature.[ top ]

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